There is one more example.
In the 'New' Dialog at first you have to define the key, meter, motive type and the melody structure. Let's choose e-moll as a key. The Motive type is iamb. The Motive of iamb type begins on the down-beat (off-beat) and ends on the up-beat. The structure will be the following: a period consists of two sentences; each sentence consists of two phrases; each phrase consists of two motives.
Each melody contains one main motive or several motive-cores from which the melody is developed. As usual, these motives are at the beginning of a melody.
The first motive is shown on Figure 1. If the melody starts with the off-beat as usual the first chord is dominant, in our case D5/3. On the first up-beat D5/3 resolves to the triad T5/3, that tunes a listener to the chosen key. The Motive Editor is the main tool to compose. The chords are chosen and edited with the Chord Editor. Let’s call the first motive 'a'.
To compose the second motive and complete the phrase you must use the methods of motive development. In our case, we 'compare' a new second motive to the first motive, but this new motive will be developed from the first. Let's choose for the second motive the seventh chord built from the second scale degree II7. This chord implements the subdominant function. Using the rhythm of the first motive we create a new intonation content. The new motive is shown on Figure 2. Let's call this motive 'a1'.
The first phrase is shown on Figure 3. Let’s call it A.
To compose the second phrase use one of the methods of development – contrast the new phrase to the phrase A. Let's compose the first motive contrasted to the motive 'a'. Choose the D7 chord for the first motive of the second phrase. As you choose the chord arrangement, please follow the same arrangement type. I.e. if the chords arrangement starts with the 'wide' chord arrangement, then use the same type for all the rest ones. The composed motive is shown on Figure 4. The motive rhythm is contrast to the motive 'a' rhythm. The rhythm of the off-beat part of the motive 'a' consists of two eighth notes with a point. The rhythm of the off-beat part of our motive consists of the sixteenth notes, so our motive has a more quick rhythm. The intonation content is also new. In the 'a' motive the only one note is the leading sound. And in the second phrase first motive the melody descending character is obvious. It seems to continue the descending movement of the 'a1' motive, the second motive of the first phrase. Let's call the new motive 'b'.
In the second motive of the second phrase we continue to develop our main motive 'a'. We use the motive 'a' rhythm. To create a new intonation content for the our motive we use the motive 'a1' developed from the motive 'a'. We compose our motive as an answer to 'a1' motive. The 'a1' motive is developed by a descending movement, when our motive, let's call it 'a2' is developed by an ascending movement.
The second phrase, let's call it 'B', is shown on Figure 6. The second phrase ends the first sentence. The Dominant chord D6/5 implements the middle cadence. This is the half cadence. The chord D6/5 sounds unstable and has a tendency to resolve to a tonic. This sounds like a question. The answer is a tonic triad at the end of the second sentence. Commonly in a cadence the chord K6/4 is used. It well prepares the next chords - D5/3 and D7. The transitions K6/4-D7 or К6/4-D5/3 can be used as the half cadence. The transitions К6/4-D7-T5/3 or К6/4-D5/3-T5/3 can be used as the full cadence.
The relatively stable third scale degree implements the melodic cadence. This note in the chord D6/5 context is a non-chord and so it sounds unstable. You may compare this middle melodic cadence with a question mark. The answer is the note E (tonic in E-dur) in the end of the second sentence which ends the melody development. The first sentence is shown on Figure 7.
The third phrase is the result of combination of the first and the second phrases. We take the 'a' motive from the first phrase and just repeat it (see Figure 8).
From the second phrase take motive 'b' and repeat it but in the new chords context (see Figure 9). The name of this method of motive development is 'Repeat'. In the second sentence we use the typical harmonic progression T5/3-S5/3-D5/3-T5/3, that consists only of the main triads.
The end of the first sentence is not emphasized by rhythm. But the second sentence starts as well as the first sentence and it by itself emphasizes the beginning of the new sentence.
The start of the third phrase repeating the start of the phrase A defines the phrase character in general. Also the second motive in the first phrase and the second motive in the our phrase is developed by a descending movement. Let's consider the third phrase as developed from the first phrase A and call it A1 (see Figure 10).
Let's form the fourth phrase from the phrase B. Use the rhythm of the first and second motives but lightly change it in the beginning. For the first motive we compose the new intonation content. The last phrase first motive notes form the ascending movement which is a contrast to the previous motive descending movement. The composed motive is new, unlike the previous motives so let's call this motive 'c' (see Figure 11).
The last motive is the sequenced repeating of the motive-core 'a' (method 'Sequence Down'). Let’s call it 'a3' (see Figure 12). This motive is the three-time repeating of the note E – tonic in E-moll. Thus the melodic motion of the period is finished. Transition of the chord D5/3 to T5/3 implements full concluding cadence that ends the harmonic period development.
The last phrase is shown on Figure 13. Let's call it C.
The second sentence is shown on Figure 14.
The whole period is shown on Figure 15.
The scheme of the period is A-B-A1-C.
As you can see on Figure 15 it's typical for a melody to develop like a wave.
The main goal of this chapter is to show that all motives and phrases form the organic whole. The phrases or motives can be contrast to each other. A phrase can be repeating of the existing phrase. Commonly, to create a new motive, some other melody motive is used. The different methods (one or several) of the motive development can be applied to the original motive. They are sequence, variation, extraction, inversion and other. You can create your own methods of the motive development. So the main idea of this chapter is that the melody is the result of the continuous motive-phrase development.
Home Table of Contents Previous
Copyright (c) 2003 - 2006 Ilya Schepikhin. All rights reserved.